The Quantum Vortex Theory of Matter

By William F. Hamilton III

 

 

 

Abstract:  The investigation of matter at atomic and sub-atomic scales has resulted in a standard particle theory and a family of particles that fit into a matrix of categories based on properties.  Quantum theory depicts particles as behaving both as particles and waves.  The duality of the so-called wavicle is accepted theory and yet the point-like depiction of elementary particles is so unsatisfactory that it has spawned new theories of matter which are known as M theories (string and superstring theories) and quantum gravity.  Some string theories call to mind the old aether-vortex theories of the late 19th and early 20th century such as those described by physicists Oliver Lodge and William Thompson (Lord Kelvin).  These old models of matter have been discarded by the early part of the 20th century as both the Special and General Theory of Relativity gained ground.  Albert Einstein had pronounced the existence of the luminiferous aether as superfluous to an explanation of the transmission of light through the vacuum.  Later, in his work Sidelights in Relativity, he affirmed the existence of an aether of sorts when he realized that his General Theory, a theory of gravity, required space to have physical properties and, therefore, having a property that allowed it to curve, bend, or warp just as a sheet of metal would do, except it would be a sheet of extremely high density material.  It was then difficult to visualize how space and matter co-existed as two separate entities when Einstein started working on his Unified Field Theory hoping to explain all forces as fields, which is to say a dynamic volume of space that influenced matter in certain ways.

 

With the rise of interest in the quantum nature of the vacuum itself in the latter part of the twentieth century, where space seems to seeth with activity, a zero-point energy has been postulated that seems to reveal that space is a lot less material than envisioned by Einstein and that the incompatibility of quantum mechanics and relativity theory is made even more apparent at the nanoscale of the zero-point field. 

 

With the dawning of the twenty-first century we are seeing a return to the aether (or ether) of space in new forms, forms that may lead to Unified Field Theory after all.  A Unified Field Theory (UFT) is not a Theory of Everything (TOE) as a TOE proposes to explain everything in existence as having a material cause which may not be the case and is restrictive in its philosophical foundations.  A UFT on the other hand proposes to do what Einstein set out to do:  unify fields of force.

 

QV Postulate 1:  Space has the properties of a superconducting superfluid.

 

Quantum Dynamics of a superfluid vortex:

 

Let us examine some statements about superfluid Helium as an analog to superfluid space:

 

“The superfluid state, in general, is characterized by frictionless, highly correlated irrotational motion of the fluid particles. The superfluid accommodates to rotation by forming a lattice of quantized vortices in which the vortex core, typically singular, breaks the topological constraint against rotational motion. In superfluid 3He, the structure of vortex cores can be much more complicated than in conventional superfluids because of the many degrees of freedom provided by the 18-dimensional order parameter manifold.” 1

 

For several years, research groups around the world have been studying cold gases of so-called fermionic atoms with the ultimate goal of finding new forms of superfluidity. A superfluid gas can flow without resistance. It can be clearly distinguished from a normal gas when it is rotated. A normal gas rotates like an ordinary object, but a superfluid can only rotate when it forms vortices similar to mini-tornadoes. This gives a rotating superfluid the appearance of Swiss cheese, where the holes are the cores of the mini-tornadoes. "When we saw the first picture of the vortices appear on the computer screen, it was simply breathtaking," said graduate student Martin Zwierlein in recalling the evening of April 13, when the team first saw the superfluid gas. For almost a year, the team had been working on making magnetic fields and laser beams very round so the gas could be set in rotation. "It was like sanding the bumps off of a wheel to make it perfectly round," Zwierlein explained.

"In superfluids, as well as in superconductors, particles move in lockstep. They form one big quantum-mechanical wave," explained Ketterle. Such a movement allows superconductors to carry electrical currents without resistance.”2

The formation of a vortex ring

 

Electron vortex rings:

The first attempt to construct a physical model of an atom was made by William Thomson (later elevated to Lord Kelvin) in 1867. The most striking property of the atom was its permanence. It was difficult to imagine any small solid entity that could not be broken, given the right force, temperature or chemical reaction. In contemplating what kinds of physical systems exhibited permanence, Thomson was inspired by a paper Helmholtz had written in 1858 on vortices. This work had been translated into English by a Scotsman, Peter Tait, who showed Thomson some ingenious experiments with smoke rings to illustrate Helmholtz' ideas. The main point was that in an ideal fluid, a vortex line is always composed of the same particles, it remains unbroken, so it is ring-like. Vortices can also form interesting combinations -- A good demonstration is provided by creating two vortex rings one right after the other going in the same direction. They can trap each other, each going through the other in succession. This is probably what Tait showed Thomson, and it gave Thomson the idea that atoms might somehow be vortices in the ether.

Of course, in a non ideal fluid like air, the vortices dissipate after a while, so Helholtz' mathematical theorem about their permanence is only approximate. But Thomson was excited because the ether was thought an ideal fluid, so vortices in the ether might last forever! This was very aesthetically appealing to everybody - "Kirchhoff, a man of cold temperament, can be roused to enthusiasm when speaking of it." (Pais, IB page 177, source for this material). In fact, the investigations of vortices, trying to match their properties with those of atoms, led to a much better understanding of the hydrodynamics of vortices - the constancy of the circulation around a vortex, for example, is known as Kelvin's law. In 1882 another Thomson, J. J., won a prize for an essay on vortex atoms, and how they might interact chemically. After that, though, interest began to wane - Kelvin himself began to doubt that his model really had much to do with atoms, and when the electron was discovered by J. J. in 1897, and was clearly a component of all atoms, different kinds of non-vortex atomic models evolved.

It is fascinating to note that the most exciting theory of fundamental particles at the present time, string theory, has a definite resemblance to Thomson's vortex atoms. One of the basic entities is the closed string, a little loop, which has fields flowing around it reminiscent of the swirl of ethereal fluid in Thomson's atom. And it's a very beautiful theory - Kirchhoff would have been enthusiastic! “3

Let us examine the idea that electron rings form in space as a composition of the ideal fluid (superfluid) of space itself.  How would a vortex start in the zero-point field (ZPF) of the vacuum?

 

A hypothetical global rotation of the universe will induce rotation of photons, electrons, and galaxies.  Any conglomeration of matter in the universe is rotating with respect to some frame of reference.  This includes planets, their satellites, solar systems, and galaxies, and possibly larger structures.  At some phase in the evolution of the universe, spin becomes inherent in its objects.  If all objects are composed of one universal substance, and this seems inescapable, then vorticity would be a common process and vorticity produces interlocking or intermeshing structures from atoms and molecules to galaxies.  That electrons occupy shells and orbitals in specific numbers. 

 

We therefore "label" an atomic electron by four "quantum numbers":

1.      n = 1, 2, 3, ...., denoting energy;

2.      l = 0, 1, ..., n-1, denoting angular momentum;

3.      m = -l, ...., l, denoting orientation (the "magnetic quantum number"),

4.      s = -1/2, 1/2, denoting spin (m s is also used in place of s).

The set of four numbers (n,l, m,s) identifies the "quantum state" of the electron. Chemists use letters in place of numbers for l (s, p, d, f, etc.), and so an n=3, l =1 electron would be denoted "3p".

The following images should give you a feel for what sorts of "orbits" these numbers correspond to. The images are cross sectional cuts of three dimensional orbits, so to get a complete picture you have to think of them as rotated around the vertical axis.

The Quantum Vortex:

Positive charges have opposite vortex spin to negative charges and thus their respective vortices mesh, reducing interspatial pressure, and drawing the particles together.

The ring model of an electron is derived from an ether vortex flow.  This vortex creates a pressure normal to its spin that is conjectured produces the electrostatic charge.  The magnetic pressure gradient is normal to the electrostatic pressure gradient and acts along the central axis of spin.  A vortex contains a low internal pressure, and a high stream pressure.  When the stream flows mesh, the particles will attract one another and when they clash, will repel.  The vortex field produces a pressure gradient that diminishes with radius from the core boundary.  The force between electric charges is inversely proportional to the radius (sq) and directly proportional to the kinetic energy (mv2) of one vortex times the kinetic energy of a paired vortex with the sign relative to the circulation vectors. 

From Model of the Electron by Ph.M. Kanarev.

 

To quote Mayeul Arminjon again:

“I assume that the particles themselves are made of that microether: each of them should be some kind of organized flow in this imagined fluid—something like a vortex. (This is Romani’s idea of a “constitutive ether”).

 

The toroidal form of the electron vortex may be generated by the helical form of the photonic wave that produces the electron in pair creation.  The antimatter counterpart of the electron, the positron, has a circulation in the opposite sense. 

 

A New Model of Matter:

 

This is a new model of matter only in that it revises an old model with discoveries made in fluid dynamics.  This model may form the basis of a new Unified Field Theory which can be used as a practical basis for new energy and transport technologies.  It is conceivable that engineers could develop a space transportation system that will harness the power of the vortex to extract energy from the spatial medium as well as using the vortex field as a means of superfast propulsion through space.  It also opens up exploration of the role of vortex dynamics in teleportation and stargate technology as well as the possibility of time travel. 

 

This essay is a brief introduction to an idea that could develop into a vast work of further research and development.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  References:

 

1.      http://ltl.hut.fi/~pjh/vortices.htm

2.      http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2005/matter.html

3.      http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/252/more_atoms.html

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